This Blog

product 1

All Legal Law is a law blog “” showcasing and contributing to law in the UK...

Get Started

product 1

Fill Sign up Form if you want to publish a guest law blog post here....

Contact us

product 1

To get in touch, please complete the above contact form or look up All Legal Law - Contact us.

Law and legal matters are the important things that we have to be well aware of all the time. There are different kinds of laws all over the world regarding different subjects. Among them, let us see some important ancient laws which are standing even today with great importance.

1) Animal rights: Using the animals for our pleasure in circuses and other sports is illegal. In circuses, they use a number of animals like horses, elephants, chimpanzees, hippos, rhinos and monkeys for performing. Big cats are also tortured heavily in circuses. This law bans using the animals in circuses and sport activities.

2) Law is the supreme power and no one is above law: This is another important law which has been standing tall since ancient times. During ancient times, in the history of Europe, there were no elected governments. Only autocratic monarchs were ruling all over the world. It was believed that kings were in charge of gods, and they were above law, but now it’s clearly understood that no one is above law.

3) Regulation of the income: This law says that no one is permitted to keep the money which belongs to others. If you have to pay some money to someone else, give him that immediately. If you are getting some work done by some daily wage worker, pay him the wages immediately.

4) Equal justice under law: This simply says that all are equal before law. No matter whether you are rich or poor, intelligent or dull, a billionaire or a beggar, you are always the same in front of the eyes of law. You will not be exempted from punishment for the simple reason that you are rich.

5) Sicut Judaeis (Constitution For The Jews): This is yet another important part of basic law. This law says that the judge shouldn’t have any prejudices about the culprit while giving the judgment.

6) Sublimes Dei (castes and creed): This is also yet another important law which was protecting the rights of people from all castes and creed. There are many basic and fundamental rights of people which need to be conserved and this law does that perfectly.

7) No incest: This is a law which protects the right of women. Women are being harassed and tortured mentally and sexually by man since time immemorial. This law prevents men from harassing women and offers severe punishment if ever he does such a thing, either mentally or physically.

8) Working off the debts: This is yet another law which deals with matters related to debts. You might have debts from some other person or some institution or bank etc. this law helps you to deal with such debt related matters.

9) Abolition of slavery: This is yet another law which bans slavery completely. In earlier days, white people held a large number of blacks as slaves. Children below the age of ten were also kept as slaves. This law abolishes that practice.

10) Minimum wages: This is yet another law which fixes the minimum wages that must be paid to every worker in any job. The amount of minimum wages varies from place to place, nature of work and the economy of the country.

Author bio- This post has been written by Johne Prantel. He writes about various aspects of Law and Finance. He works for a los angeles sexual harassment lawyer.
When someone sits down to write a will, they may begin with a list of their property, savings, shares, valuable items or household goods generally. Digital assets can often be overlooked when considering what to do when someone dies.

Digital assets include files, folders and software you have on your computer and phone at home or work. They also include things held by others, such as:

  • Emails held in web-based accounts, such as Hotmail or Gmail;
  • Retailers accounts, such as Apple or Amazon’s online music storage, or a blinkbox account;
  • Social networking sites;
  • Online business assets, such as domain names and websites;
  • Information used to access physical assets, such as the passwords for internet banking accounts.

Why are digital assets important?

Digital assets are becoming increasingly widespread, more important for day-to-day life and make up a greater proportion of the value of the average person’s estate.

An executor has the responsibility of collecting in a person’s entire estate, before distributing it according to the deceased’s will or the laws of intestacy. This responsibility includes dealing with digital assets.

More traditional assets and liabilities are often now accessible only online, too. Many people will have all of their bank statements and utility bills sent to them by email or accessed online.

Digital assets can also be an important part of a business, often closely related to the company’s intellectual property: including client databases, website content and confidentiality. The relationship between the two types of asset is close because software and licences are so integral to digital communication and goods.

Things to look out for

In practical terms, most executors will not need to identify digital assets as a separate category, but the following should be considered:

  • Ownership: Identifying which assets are personal and which are owned by someone else. This is a general issue with the whole of a person’s estate but is particularly important with digital assets as (a) they can be moved around easily and accessed from more than one location – sometimes simultaneously; and (b) because of the prevalence of licence agreements, which can cause similar problems to rented or ‘hire-purchase’ goods;

  • Access: Many accounts are protected by passwords. This can be a problem for executors trying to find out information but also for things like business continuity;

  • Confidentiality: the distinction between personal and business information can become blurred, especially when personal computers and email accounts are used for business use. For instance, where a client becomes a personal ‘contact’ on a personal, web-based email account. Similarly an employee’s acceptance of the terms of use of certain websites or software could give permission for site to monitor and/or use clients’ information held on the employee’s home computer. When executors and/or beneficiaries have access to those email accounts or computer files, the data protection principles are potentially being breached;

  • Unauthorised access: putting hacking aside, not everyone keeps their passwords and access details secret. It is not uncommon for a couple to know each other’s login details for a range of things, similarly good friends. However permission to access the account whilst someone is alive is not the same as being allowed to use the assets when they are dead. An executor is responsible for securing all parts of the estate for the beneficiaries

  • Jurisdiction: not all assets are held in the same jurisdiction to the deceased. Many, many companies have their servers located in other or multiple jurisdictions. In particular, a lot of cloud based services are based on US hosted servers. In the same way that this can effectively remove a lot of the privacy protections of the person’s home jurisdiction, this can also (theoretically) change the probate regime that the assets are subject to. In many cases this will not be an issue in practice but if the asset were particularly valuable, it has the potential to cause a problem. English subjects living abroad can, for instance, be in the situation where the law of England and Wales states assets are passed in accordance with the law of the country of domicile but the law of the country where they live states that assets are passed in accordance with the law of the country of origin;

  • Division: say, for the sake of argument, a person had £5,000 worth of music and films held in an account or a service (and assuming they held the title to the copies, not licences). How would those assets be divided between three beneficiaries? Pre-paid subscriptions?

  • Sensitivities: losing a loved one is a difficult time. Some people find reminders, such as Facebook pages and updates, distressing. There is also the unfortunate reality of internet ‘trolling’. The executors should give consideration to closing the deceased’s social networking pages as soon as practicable, but…:

Closure of accounts: It is widely reported that Facebook, as an example, allows an executor to close the account of the deceased person but will not pass on their login details. This may quite distressing if, as is becoming more common, their online accounts were their preferred way of storing their photographs and other personal media. In addition (although unlikely for the vast majority of people), the information the accounts contain may have some value to the estate – for instance for posthumous biographies, or just personal interest. There is the possibility the information may be useful in a dispute about a will. Consideration should therefore be given to securing information prior to asking for the account to be closed.
(Alabama family law) The concept of private Judges is not new and not exclusive to the State of Alabama. Many other states have had this type of legislation in place for many years in some form, and it appears for the most part it has been successful. Generally the issue of private Judges will vary on factors such as type of case to be heard, and that all cases are non-jury type cases such as domestic relations.

In Alabama private Judges became a real option on July 1, 202 when the Act authorizing private judges was codified. Ala. Code § 12-17-350 et seq. (1975, as amended). The availability of private Judges on domestic relations cases is in my opinion a way of offering another option to be utilized in the arena of domestic relations cases, and can greatly increase the efficiency of the legal process.

It offers a compromise between a regular trial court and mediation. Mediation is a very effective tool in divorce cases and custody matters but all parties know that if an agreement is not reached there is nothing the mediator can do to ultimately dispose of the case, and it will have to go to trial. In contrast a regular trial court will hear any evidence in a formal court setting and then issue an order that removes all control from either party as to the issues of the case and the order will dispose of the case except for any available post-trial motions or appeals.

The benefits of having a private Judge hear your divorce case or other domestic relations matter can be worthwhile in certain circumstances. Obviously the first thing that comes to mind is that people will be able to “judge shop” for the one they want. While it may seem that way and a person can have a choice in the Judge they hire there is a rule in place that will have to be followed. The parties, if they choose to hire a private Judge, must agree on the same Judge. This keeps a balance of fairness to the choice and prevents one sided choosing of which Judge to hire. The State of Alabama maintains a list of available (mostly retired) judges including their areas of expertise and years of experience on the bench. Once appointed to the case this Judge will manage the entire case.

Secondly, timeliness is a large benefit. The private Judge will not have a large docket to manage or hundreds of other cases that may cause delays in obtaining a timely disposition in your case. Such delays may constitute several months and during that time a client may suffer other adverse effects. A pending divorce for example can quickly cause both sides to begin receiving calls regarding debt collection for unpaid marital bills, and foreclosure on the marital home due to no resolution is a real possibility that happens often. From a client point of view this may be a money saving option also.

On the other hand there are disadvantages to consider. A private Judge is not a free judge and he or she will have to be hired to hear the case and an hourly fee will surely be applied. This Judge is going to conduct his handling of the case the same a regular trial court Judge, but hopefully faster and more efficiently.

In summary, Experience offered by a private Judge and efficiency of the judicial process is the main reason for considering whether or not to agree to hire a private judge. The option of a private Judge to hear domestic relation cases can be a benefit to the right client and in the right circumstance. While payment to this Judge is a factor, that factor could easily be outweighed by the possibility of lengthy delays waiting to have a trial with the regular circuit court Judge.
Within organizations most of company rules revolve around conduct and results; everything else is basically left up to employees. Public administrators face fewer restrictions than almost anyone else within governmental and non-governmental agencies, but they can’t afford to become lax in their freedom. Personal codes are needed to help pick up the slack, and that’s not because it’s impossible to do the job without them; it’s because people with vision need to discipline themselves if they want their vision to come true.

The Rules

The five rules public administrators should adhere to are:

  • Efficiency and humanity go hand in hand
  • Structures that don’t suit people should be changed
  • The underprivileged should be the foremost concern
  • The individual is as important as the group
  • No one should be expected to do what the administrator won’t do

Rule 1: Efficiency and Humanity Go Hand in Hand

The centerpiece of many public administration theories is efficiency standards that mimic the private sector. This is a positive development on the whole because people perform best when they are rewarded or punished based on merit. However, this can be taken too far, and it’s important to balance the need for efficiency with the needs of employees.

Rule 2: Structures That Don’t Suit People Should be Changed

Human nature is impossible to alter, and when an organizational structure proves to be stifling for too many employees it’s time to reexamine it. The clockwork machinations of the industrial era don’t suit modern people, and creating structures that cater to people as they are instead of trying to force conformity are ultimately better for productivity and job satisfaction.

Rule 3: The Underprivileged Should be the Foremost Concern

Public administrators have a lot of things to consider when developing new policies, and even though the field came into existence as part of an attempt to address poverty, the poor still fall through the cracks. It’s easy to plan legislation that centers around local businesses and other projects, but if there’s no quantifiable and demonstrable gain for the underprivileged then it should be taken back to the drawing board.

Rule 4: The Individual is as Important as the Group

Every society and organization is comprised of numerous individuals working toward a common goal, and even though public administrators should strive to act in the name of the greater good, their efforts can fail when they’re willing to force too many sacrifices on certain groups for the sake of others. It’s impossible to avoid damaging everyone 100 percent of the time, but no one should ask others to make sacrifices except when there is truly no other way.

Rule 5: No One Should be Expected to Do What the Administrator Won’t Do

Leaders who don’t lead by example are not respected, and their employees grow to resent every demand that’s made by someone they view as lazy and duplicitous. There’s a lot of pressure on public administrators to perform as it is, but only those who are willing to step up to the plate and make themselves beacons of what they want their organizations to embody are fit to take on the role.

Connie Lyons is an avid blogger. If you’re in the public admin field or interested in learning more on your own, you may consider a degree such as those offered by University of Southern California or San Francisco State University.