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Registering a business in Thailand is governed by Thailand Foreign Business Act B.E. 2542 (FBA) which restricts foreigners to a maximum of 49% of the issued capital in most business operations (other than manufacturing).

According to the Foreign Business Act, business activities are generally divided into 3 types:

List 1: Business Not Permitted to Foreigners

List 2: Business Permitted to Foreigners under Conditions

List 3: Business Not Yet Permitted to Foreigners

List 1 is strictly prohibited to aliens. In order to be authorized to exercise a business under List 2 and List 3, wherein the company’s majority of shares are held by foreigners (it means that a foreigner owned more that 50% of the share equity of the business), you have to apply for a Foreign Business License (FBL).

Foreign Business License (FBL)

This license will allow a foreigner to set up business in Thailand where majority of the owners are foreigners.

To be granted a Foreign Business License, the official of the Ministry of Commerce will review if:

  • Your proposed business could not be competently carried out by a majority Thai-owned company;

  • It is not contrary to Thailand’s safety, security and stability, good morals or public order;

  • It is beneficial to Thai economy (which will be depend on how the business affects the natural resources, social development, conservation, energy and environment, consumer protection, size of the enterprises, employment);

  • It is beneficial in terms of technology transfer, research, and development;

  • It provides significantly more benefits and protect and promote Thai interest.

  • The initial minimum capital requirement has been satisfied. Under foreign business license it shall be either THB 3 million or 25% of the annual expenditure projection of the business for a period of 3 years, whichever is greater;

  • The number of foreign directors who shall have domicile in the country;

  • The ratio between capital and loan to be used to finance the business.


1. Get the Foreign Business License application form from Commercial Registration Department.

2. Prepare your company corporate documents.

Your company corporate document needs to be notarized, all foreign document (such as power of attorney; affidavits) needs to be certified by the Thai Embassy before filing to the local foreign ministry. You can get assistance from a reputable law firm such as Siam Legal International, this could help you assure that your documents are in order.

3. File the foreign license application under the proposed name of your company. This will be reviewed by Cabinet or Foreign Business Committee.

By the Nair Law Office (US law and generally)

Probate is the first step in the legal process of administering the estate of a deceased person, with the sole intent to transfer a decedent’s assets to the rightful heirs and beneficiaries. The estate is examined by a judicial authority to determine how to distribute the estate after a person has died with or without leaving a will. In probate cases without a will, the estate is usually distributed to the person’s children and their spouse. Having a will will sometimes, but does not always prevent the estate from going through probate; laws vary state to state.

Probate and estate administration can be a lengthy and complicated process. Each party involved should have legal representation to protect their interests during administration. All heirs and beneficiaries need a legal advocate to ensure proper distribution of assets. Executor should consult with an attorney for legal assistance during probate proceeding to prevent a personal liability lawsuit. Probate attorneys have expertise in the following areas:

  • Location of heirs
  • Identifying debtors
  • Paying taxes and debts
  • Allocation of assets as determined by a will or legal proceedings
  • Determining the validity of any disputes or litigation
  • Representing underage children and deciding guardianship of minors
  • Establishing guardianship of elderly and other disabled adults
  • Legal assignments of conservatorships

Estates with assets over $10,000 will have an easier time distributing those assets if a will and trusts are already in place prior to the death of the estate owner. If no will is in place, the court will decide who inherits the estates assets. This process can take months or even years. If you are an heir or beneficiary of an estate without a will, an attorney can provide the best representation in court.
Following the impact of Super Storm Sandy on the East Coast of the United States, which lead to massive power outages and widespread gas shortages lasting for several weeks in the New York and New Jersey areas, some government officials are considering legislation that would mandate the requirement of backup power generators at all gas stations.
Mandating the installation of backup generators at gas stations might just be a costly overreaction on the part of government bureaucrats who seem to have no empathy for the average gas station owner or businessperson. Purchasing backup generators are often prohibitively costly not only for the limited amount of use they will get but also take up valuable selling space and can even be a danger to the owner and his customers.

Initial Costs

No matter the application, backup generators will constitute a significant investment for the purchaser. This fact is doubly significant for a gas station owner who will, most probably, have to observe a wide range of regulations and obtain numerous permits. In addition to the actual purchase, monies will be spent on initial plans, yearly inspections and fines for any non-compliant issues. Many of these costs will be carried by the private gas station owner and not the gas supplying companies.

Space Constraints

Due to the traffic at the intersections of major streets and highways, these corners are very valuable real estate. Any gas station, located on one of these corners, either through rent or by servicing a mortgage is paying a very real price for every square inch of his property. As such, the station owner must plan to make every square inch pay and the installation of a backup generator likely was not accounted for in their existing plans.

Safety Considerations

All backup generators run on fossil fuel. As such, they can emit noxious and toxic gases if not properly situated. In addition, the permanent backup generators will most likely be housed in a confined area for better security. All these factors, however, add up to a safety hazard for the owner, his employees and their customers. There is simply no reason to subject people to these dangers when a perfectly good alternative exists.

A Better Solution

In the interests of not just being just negative, here is a far better solution to the problem of backup energy at gas stations: rental generators. They are highly reliable, incredibly powerful and eminently affordable. Simply put, they are the ideal solution for a gas station owner that has an emergency or temporary need for backup power generation.

The generator has been an integral and reliable source of power for well over a century. The intrinsic principles and technology are well understood and have been made readily portable. Portable or temporary generators are simply the best answer to any business, including gas stations that need reliable and affordable power at a moment’s notice due to an emergency situation or a short term power outage.
Brandy Armantrout, 32, an Oklahoma woman, has spoken out as one of the most recent victims of the drospirenone-containing contraceptive, Yaz. According to KFOR news report, the woman says she had to have her left arm amputated as a result of taking Yaz. Armantrout says she started taking the pill back in 2007. Last December, she began to feel tingling in her left arm. When she went to the hospital, she had to be treated for severe deep vein thrombosis or blood clots in her arm. She had no pulse in her wrist. She had to be hooked up on IVs. She says she felt her hand turning black and “dying.” Surgeons had to remove her arm above the elbow.

Devastating Injuries

The amputation was a devastating blow for Armantrout, her husband and 4-year-old daughter. She also found out after the amputation that she has no medical insurance coverage for prosthetics as Medicaid will pay for prosthetics for Oklahomans younger than 21 years old. A prosthesis could cost her up to $80,000. She has also reached out to the state Vocation Rehabilitation Services, which is helping her research ways to fund prosthetics that would work for her. She is moving ahead with a civil product liability lawsuit against Bayer, which manufactures Yaz.

Product Liability Issues

Yaz was the top-selling birth control pill in 2008 and 2009. Yaz’s sales have been affected after Bayer has been hit with thousands of lawsuits on behalf of women who have suffered serious, sometimes deadly, complications from taking the popular medication. Side effects range from gall bladder problems, stroke, blood clots and even death. In April 2012, Bayer announced that it had updated labels for its drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives including Yaz and Yasmin.

It is understandable that most medications – whether they are prescription or over-the-counter — have some type of side effects. However, when theYaz side effects involve long-term or catastrophic health problems or death, that is unacceptable. In this case, a young woman lost her arm. It left her disabled for life.

Anyone who has been seriously injured or has suffered side effects as a result of taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs can file a product liability claim against the manufacturer seeking compensation for damages including medical expenses, lost wages, lost future income, disability, permanent injuries, pain and suffering and emotional distress. Product manufacturers have a responsibility to consumers to test anything they put on the market to ensure that it is safe. Any side effects or potential hazards must be made known to the public so consumers can make informed decisions about their course of treatment.